Trails End Computer Club

Bulletin for the week of MARCH 8, 2015

WEEKLY MEETINGS
EACH Wednesday 

Program or Lesson 9:30 - 10:30 AM
One on One Help 10:30-?
In the Library


SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS:

If you would like to meet in a small group to discuss special computer related subjects or form a Special Interest Group lets discuss it.

Our bulletin is also available on line by visiting tecc.apcug.org and clicking on bulletin.


Our weekly program or lesson is intended
to be of interest to all computer users.
Following the program an allotment of time will
be available for one on one help to those
who want a better understanding of something done
 during the presentation.

Upcoming Events

Wednesday MARCH 11, 2015 Meeting
 9:15 AM Set up your computer
 9:30 AM Lesson
10:30 AM One on One help

DANPresident’s Column, March 2015

By Dan Douglas, President, Space Coast PCUG, FL

March 2015 issue, Space Coast PC Journal        www.scpcug.com         ringram28 (at) cfl.rr.com

The recent big news from Microsoft concerns the upcoming release of Windows 10 later this year. The announcement was that all devices currently running Windows 7 & 8 will be eligible for free upgrades to Windows 10. I’ve been using Windows 10 beta on a couple of PCs for a few months now and I like to tell people it’s more like Windows 7.5 in appearance and operation. It offers a start button closer in function to Windows 7, than the often criticized Windows 8 offering. The user has the ability to modify the specific tiles that are displayed along with the start button selections in Windows 10 and this addresses part of the difficultly many people have with Windows 8.

I remember back quite a few years ago when the release of a new operating system was a major event in the life of us geeks. There were a few times when standing in line to purchase a copy of the latest release was on a par with standing in line to buy the first iPhone. The home PC market was originally targeted by Microsoft and the business PC environment was IBM’s domain. Then the companies had a falling out and both went after the other environment. There was real excitement in seeing the latest features in the newest version of Windows and then seeing how IBM countered with the next version of OS/2. It seems so archaic that we used to buy an OS that was installed with a box of 10 - 20 diskettes and then we evolved to getting it on a CD!

Of course we know that Microsoft won the PC and server OS battle and that IBM was left with the mainframe world (yes, there are still mainframes in use), but the maturity of the OS has left us with relatively mild changes from one version to another now, compared to the rapid advancements we used to see with the user interface in the early versions. I remember when the right click on an icon was new and allowed a new level of customization and access to tailoring that we never had before.

I think I only ever saw Windows version 1 & 2 on a couple of PCs and based on those, it is a wonder that there ever was a Windows 3 that finally was adopted as useful by the user community. I once saw Bill Gates as the keynote speaker at a predominantly mainframe conference, back in the days when Microsoft was working with IBM. Even he experienced firsthand what every presenter goes through at some point in their career, when their demo blows up unexpectedly. He won us over though, by giving every audience attendee a free copy of the latest version of Windows.

The most dangerous virus that I have seen impacted a couple of people who came to me for help over the last two months. It is the type of threat that essentially locks out your files, including attached backup drives, until you pay them a ransom. There was even a story about this on the major news networks last week, when a Police Department ended up paying a $600 fee to get their critical files unlocked. The best practice is always to never open an attachment unless you are certain about its legitimacy. As great as the internet is for easy access to data and information, the risk is always there for easy ways for bad people to pass along things that can do real harm. I once had a boss who believed that sensitive data, like banking information, would never be accessible through the open internet, due to the inherent risks of data access by unauthorized people.

Time has proven him wrong but, recently I have met many people who are looking at ways to go back to unconnected PCs (XP lives!!) to perform a certain set of tasks, without the risk of unauthorized access. Not a bad approach, if you are fortunate to have software that can operate unconnected, which is a rarity in today’s always connected world.


What Exactly Is Linux

Stuart Jones, MD, Member, Lehigh Valley Computer Group, Pennsylvania

www.lvcg.org          stujonesmd (at) gmail.com

Everybody who has used a personal computer (PC)—desktop, laptop, notebook, and tablet, whatever—knows about Windows. Microsoft Windows, to be exact. Most of the PC’s in the world use Windows as their ‘operating system’. As many know, a computer system is made of hardware (the actual machinery—the physical computer) and software (the instructions installed into the hardware to make it work). The ‘operating system’ is the most basic part of software—the software that manages the physical computer so that other programs (so-called ‘applications software’) can make the computer do things that are useful to human beings. For most people, these useful things involve looking up information on the Internet, sending and receiving electronic mail, writing and printing documents, and playing computer games. Most computer users can be happily unaware of what is going on inside their computer, and this is as it should be. A computer, like a toaster, should ‘just work’. Though we hear the most about computers when they don’t work as they should, for the most part, they do. Microsoft Windows can take some credit for this reliability, though this has depended in part of which version of Windows is being used (the best, by far, has been Windows 7).

Since Windows works so well for so many people, why would anyone wish to use a different operating system? Up to now, most people haven’t bothered. A few know that a copy of Windows on your computer costs up to $100, but they are used to paying $400 and up for a computer, and that cost is built into the overall price. Having learned since 1995 how to use any version of Windows, folks are not eager to learn a new way of doing things. A very few people who know a bit more about computers are not happy with the way Microsoft has run their part of the computer business, but for the most part, these folks are ignored by the rest of us.

However, a VERY small group of VERY well educated computer people had complained very loudly for decades about how Microsoft had dominated the operating system business, and how poorly various versions of Windows have worked…from their expert perspective. Another small group of computer experts years ago decided to develop their own computer operating system. This group was led by Richard Stallman, who is best known for his assertion that ALL software should be distributed including its source code (the original computer language text that defines what the software is and does). His group developed a set of outstanding programming tools (programs used to develop other programs, but had difficulty developing their own operating system (GNU). In 1991, this crowd was joined by a computer science major from the University of Helsinki, Finland, named Linux Torvalds. He had written a personal version of an operating system, modeled on an operating system called ‘UNIX’, which had been built for the very large computers of the 1970’s and 1980’s. Linus spread his new program over the Internet to a worldwide group of similarly inclined programmers, who dubbed the results ‘LINUX’, in his honor. (Since Linus and others used the GNU tools, their operating system is sometimes called ‘GNU-LINUX, to give well-deserved credit to Stallman’s group.)

At first, LINUX was very limited compared to Windows. However, since LINUX cost nothing, and could be downloaded and modified freely, it became popular among computer experts, who formed an international community around improving LINUX. Similar programmer communities developed other free and open software projects, which came to include many types of programs usually (in the Windows world) sold for profit. In addition, software was added to the LINUX project that created the same sort of ‘user interface’ (the method people use to make the computer do things) that was provided by Windows (as well as the Apple Macintosh operating system, OS/X)—that is, using icons, a mouse, and keyboard, as well as video graphics (the so-called ‘GUI’—Graphical User Interface). The number of computer programmers working on free software projects rapidly increased to number over 100 million people, located everywhere reached by the Internet (which, as we know, now covers nearly all of our planet).

Until recently, this meant little or nothing to most computer owners. However, Microsoft, in perhaps the most stupid business decision ever seen in the software business, first published a new version of Windows (Windows 8) which drastically changed the user interface, to the dismay (and LOUD complaints) of everyone buying a new computer with this installed. They then compounded this idiocy by announcing and enforcing (by frankly unethical actions) ‘end of life’ for the Windows XP version that was still being used by the majority of computer owners, to force all of them to buy a newer version. They then made the situation far worse by insisting that all these folks change to Windows 8, even though nearly all preferred Windows 7 (which kept the old user interface), and keeping the price of a Windows 7 license higher than one for Windows 8 ($90 minimum, PER COMPUTER). As of April, 2014, Windows XP was no longer updated and supported by Microsoft. This means that anyone still using XP will be in danger of having their computer afflicted with viruses and other malware, and of having their personal data stolen by the criminals who create this garbage.

Add to all this the ongoing economic crisis of 2008 to the present, there are a lot of computer owners who can ill afford the expense of a Windows upgrade, particularly if (as many do) they have 2 or more computers in their household. Fortunately for them, and for all other disgruntled current Microsoft Windows owners (dare we call them victims?), LINUX presents a really excellent alternative. Relatively few, unfortunately, have heard about LINUX, and those who have mostly think that it is strictly for computer experts (the so-called ‘nerdocracy’). Due to the efforts of those millions of free software programmers, this is no longer true. There are versions of LINUX that install more easily than Windows, run faster on the same computer hardware, and are EASIER to use than Windows 7, let alone 8. The author’s current favorite version is Zorin LINUX, which can even be set up to LOOK like Windows XP or Windows 7.

Even those who know more about LINUX may be confused by the enormous (several hundred at last count) versions of LINUX plus additional programs that are available as ‘distributions’. Each of these ‘distros’ combines the LINUX operating system proper with many additional programs that manage the user interface, and also take care of tasks for which Windows users habitually pay $30-$50 (apiece!!) for a program package dedicated to each function (such as listening to music, burning CD’s and DVD’s, and performing office tasks). Each distribution is put together by a team of programmers (and user interface designers, artists, and documentation writers) who choose what will be included and how it will all work together. The result of their efforts is a package of software that can be run (without being copied to hard disk storage) ‘live’ on any recent PC, or installed on that PC either replacing Windows, or alongside Windows. (In this last case, the user chooses which operating system to use when the computer starts up or restarts.) There are special distros designed to be run old older equipment (as old as Intel 486 class!), netbook computers, and even exotic computers that aren’t, strictly speaking, PC’s. In fact, the Android operating system run by most cellular phones and tablet computers is a distro of LINUX, and there is even a distro designed for the XBOX gaming system, that turns this into a full-fledged computer usable for most PC tasks. The server computers that run the Internet (about 95% of them) run LINUX, as do some of the very large IBM computers used by banks and stock exchanges. As this is written, if you include all the tablets and cell phones, there are many MORE computers in the world running LINUX than run Windows!

LINUX is, without a doubt, the largest little-known phenomenon in high technology, and really, ENORMOUSLY, deserves to be better known by ordinary people. Because of the enormous networks of volunteers and paid experts who contribute to the LINUX project, as well as the thousands of other free and open software projects around the world, there is an absolutely HUGE community of LINUX experts available to help other folks who would like to use this software on their PC’s, alongside or instead of Windows. Help is available via the Internet from numerous websites, and also from many regional and national LINUX user groups. Paid assistance for LINUX users is also available, from consultants and also from large organizations (including IBM!). Entire countries (including, at present, mainland China (!) and the Russian Republic) have adopted LINUX as their official government operating system, and a number of medium sized cities across the world have also done so.

Though Microsoft Windows (especially after the company retreats from its current idiocy, which seems imminent) will still have a large presence on PCs, it appears that LINUX will conquer a large segment of the PC market, and therefore will soon assume a much larger role in personal computing at the desktop and laptop level. Regardless, LINUX will continue to be developed by its various programmer communities, and will continue to power the Internet, cellular telephones, and a host of other ‘smart devices’ (such as automobiles), the owners of which will likely remain blissfully unaware that they are using LINUX.


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